Suddenly we have left the continent of the vast Hundred and
Nineteenth Psalm for the islands and islets of the Songs of Degrees. It may be
well to engage in protracted devotion upon a special occasion, but this must
cast no slur upon the sacred brevities which sanctify the godly life day by day.
He who inspired the longest psalm was equally the author of the short
compositions which follow it.
TITLE. A SONG OF DEGREES. We have already devoted a
sufficient space to the consideration of this title in its application to this
psalm and the fourteen compositions which succeed it. These appear to us to be
Pilgrim Psalms, but we are not sure that they were always sung in company; for
many of them are in the first person singular. No doubt there were solitary
pilgrims as well as troops who went to the house of God in company, and for
these lonely ones hymns were prepared.
SUBJECT. A certain author supposes that this hymn was sung
by an Israelite upon leaving his house to go up to Jerusalem. He thinks that the
good man had suffered from the slander of his neighbours, and was glad to get
away from their gossip, and spend his time in the happier engagements of the
holy feasts. It may be so, but we hope that pious people were not so foolish as
to sing about their bad neighbours when they were leaving them, for a few days.
If they wished to leave their houses in safety, and to come home to kind
surroundings, it would have been the height of folly to provoke those whom they
were leaving behind by singing aloud a psalm of complaint against them. We do
not know why this ode is placed first among the Psalms of Degrees, and we had
rather hazard no conjecture of our own. We prefer the old summary of the
translators--"David prayeth against Doeg" --to any far fetched supposition: and if
this be the scope of the psalm, we see at once why it suggested itself to David
at the station where the ark abode, and from which he had come to remove it. He
came to fetch away the ark, and at the place where he found it he thought of
Doeg, and poured out his complaint concerning him. The author had been
grievously calumniated, and had been tortured into bitterness by the false
charges of his persecutors, and here is his appeal to the great Arbiter of right
and wrong before whose judgment seal no man shall suffer from slanderous
Verse 1.In my distress. Slander occasions distress of the
most grievous kind. Those who have felt the edge of a cruel tongue know
assuredly that it is sharper than the sword. Calumny rouses our indignation by a
sense of injustice, and yet we find ourselves helpless to fight with the evil,
or to act in our own defence. We could ward off the strokes of a cutlass, but we
have no shield against a liar's tongue. We do not know who was the father of the
falsehood, nor where it was born, nor where it has gone, nor how to follow it,
nor how to stay its withering influence. We are perplexed, and know not which
way to turn. Like the plague of flies in Egypt, it baffles opposition, and few
can stand before it. Detraction touches us in the most tender point, cuts to the
quick, and leaves a venom behind which it is difficult to extract. In all ways
it is a sore distress to come under the power of "slander, the foulest whelp of
sin." Even in such distress we need not hesitate to cry unto the Lord. Silence
to man and prayer to God are the best cures for the evil of slander.
I cried unto the LORD (or Jehovah). The wisest course that
he could follow. It is of little use to appeal to our fellows on the matter of
slander, for the more we stir in it the more it spreads; it is of no avail to
appeal to the honour of the slanderers, for they have none, and the most piteous
demands for justice will only increase their malignity and encourage them to
fresh insult. As well plead with panthers and wolves as with black hearted
traducers. However, when cries to man would be our weakness, cries to God will
be our strength. To whom should children cry but to their father? Does not some
good come even out of that vile thing, falsehood, when it drives us to our knees
and to our God? "And he heard me". Yes, Jehovah hears. He is the living God, and
hence prayer to him is reasonable and profitable. The Psalmist remembered and
recorded this instance of prayer hearing, for it had evidently much affected
him; and now he rehearses it for the glory of God and the good of his brethren.
"The righteous cry and the Lord heareth them". The ear of our God is not deaf,
nor even heavy. He listens attentively, he catches the first accent of
supplication; he makes each of his children confess, --"he heard me". When we are
slandered it is a joy that the Lord knows us, and cannot be made to doubt our
uprightness: he will not hear the lie against us, but he will hear our prayer
against the lie.
If these psalms were sung at the ascent of the ark to Mount
Zion, and then afterwards by the pilgrims to Jerusalem at the annual festivals
and at the return from Babylon, we shall find in the life of David a reason for
this being made the first of them. Did not this servant of God meet with Doeg
the Edomite when he enquired of the oracle by Abiathar, and did not that
wretched creature believe him and betray him to Saul? This made a very painful
and permanent impression upon David's memory, and therefore in commencing the
ark journey he poured out his lament before the Lord, concerning the great and
monstrous wrong of "that dog of a Doeg", as Trapp wittily calls him. The poet,
like the preacher, may find it to his advantage to "begin low, "for then he has
the more room to rise: the next Psalm is a full octave above the present
mournful hymn. Whenever we are abused it may console us to see that we are not
alone in our misery we are traversing a road upon which David left his
Verse 2.Deliver my soul, O Lord, from lying lips. It will
need divine power to save a man from these deadly instruments. Lips are soft:
but when they are lying lips they suck away the life of character and are as
murderous as razors. Lips should never be red with the blood of honest men's
reputes, nor salved with malicious falsehoods. David says, "Deliver my soul":
the soul, the life of the man, is endangered by lying lips; cobras are not more
venomous, nor devils themselves more pitiless. Some seem to lie for lying sake,
it is their sport and spirit: their lips deserve to be kissed with a hot iron;
but it is not for the friends of Jesus to render to men according to their
deserts. Oh for a dumb generation rather than a lying one! The faculty of speech
becomes a curse when it is degraded into a mean weapon for smiting men behind
their backs. We need to be delivered from slander by the Lord's restraint upon
wicked tongues, or else to be delivered out of it by having our good name
cleared from the liar's calumny. And from a deceitful tongue This is rather worse than
downright falsehood. Those who fawn and flatter, and all the while have enmity
in their hearts, are horrible beings; they are the seed of the devil, and he
worketh in them after his own deceptive nature. Better to meet wild beasts and
serpents than deceivers: these are a kind of monster whose birth is from
beneath, and whose end lies far below. It should be a warning to liars and
deceivers when they see that all good men pray against them, and that even bad
men are afraid of them. Here is to the believer good cause for prayer. "Deliver
us from evil", may be used with emphasis concerning this business. From gossips,
talebearers, writers of anonymous letters, forgers of newspaper paragraphs, and
all sorts of liars, good Lord deliver us!
Verse 3.What shall be given unto thee? What is the expected
guerdon of slander? It ought to be something great to make it worth while to
work in so foul an atmosphere and to ruin one's soul. Could a thousand worlds be
bribe enough for such villainous deeds? The liar shall have no welcome
recompense: he shall meet with his deserts; but what shall they be? What
punishment can equal his crime? The Psalmist seems lost to suggest a fitting
punishment. It is the worst of offences--this detraction, calumny, and slander.
Judgment sharp and crushing would be measured out to it if men were visited for
their transgressions. But what punishment could be heavy enough? What form shall
the chastisement take? O liar, "what shall be given unto thee?" Or what shall be done unto thee, thou false tongue? How
shalt thou be visited? The law of retaliation can hardly meet the case, since
none can slander the slanderer, he is too black to be blackened; neither would
any of us blacken him if we could. Wretched being! He fights with weapons which
true men cannot touch. Like the cuttlefish, he surrounds himself with an inky
blackness into which honest men cannot penetrate. Like the foul skunk, he emits
an odour of falsehood which cannot be endured by the true; and therefore he
often escapes, unchastised by those whom he has most injured. His crime, in a
certain sense, becomes his shield; men do not care to encounter so base a foe.
But what will God do with lying tongues? He has uttered his most terrible
threats against them, and he will terribly execute them in due time.
Verse 4.Sharp arrows of the mighty. Swift, sure, and sharp
shall be the judgment. Their words were as arrows, and so shall their punishment
be. God will see to it that their punishment shall be comparable to an arrow
keen in itself, and driven home with all the force with which a mighty man
shoots it from his bow of steel, -- "sharp arrows of the mighty". Nor shall one
form of judgment suffice to avenge this complicated sin. The slanderer shall
feel woes comparable to coals of juniper, which are quick in flaming, fierce in
blazing, and long in burning. He shall feel sharp arrows and sharper fires.
Awful doom! All liars shall have their portion in the lake which burneth with
fire and brimstone. Their worm dieth not, and their fire is not quenched.
Juniper coals long retain their heat, but hell burneth ever, and the deceitful
tongue may not deceive itself with the hope of escape from the fire which it has
kindled. What a crime is this to which the All merciful allots a doom so
dreadful! Let us hate it with perfect hatred. It is better to be the victim of
slander than, to be the author of it. The shafts of calumny will miss the mark,
but not so the arrows of God: the coals of malice will cool, but not the fire of
justice. Shun slander as you would avoid hell.
Verse 5.Woe is me, that sojourn in Mesech, that I dwell in the
tentsof Kedar! Gracious men are vexed with the conversation of the
wicked. Our poet felt himself to be as ill at ease among lying neighbours as if
he had lived among savages and cannibals. The traitors around him were as bad as
the unspeakable Turk. He cries "Woe is me!" Their sin appalled him, their enmity
galled him. He had some hope from the fact that he was only a sojourner in
Mesech; but as years rolled on the time dragged heavily, and he feared that he
might call himself a dweller in Kedar. The wandering tribes to whom he refers
were constantly at war with one another; it was their habit to travel armed to
the teeth; they were a kind of plundering gypsies, with their hand against every
man and every man's hand against them; and to these he compared the false
hearted ones who had assailed his character. Those who defame the righteous are
worse than cannibals; for savages only eat men after they are dead, but these
wretches cat them up alive.
"Woe's me that I in Mesech am
A sojourner so long;
That I in tabernacles dwell
To Kedar that belong.
My soul with him that hateth peace
Hath long a dweller been;
I am for peace; but when I speak,
For battle they are keen.
My soul distracted mourns and pines
To reach that peaceful short,
Where all the weary are at rest,
And troublers vex no more."
Verse 6.My soul hath long dwelt with him that hateth peace.
Long, long enough, too long had he been an exile among such barbarians. A peace
maker is a blessing, but a peace hater is a curse. To lodge with such for a
night is dangerous, but to dwell with them is horrible. The verse may apply to
any one of the Psalmist's detractors: he had seen enough of him and pined to
quit such company. Perhaps the sweet singer did not at first detect the nature
of the man, for he was a deceiver; and when he did discover him he found himself
unable to shake him off, and so was compelled to abide with him. Thoughts of
Doeg, Saul, Ahithophel, and the sons of Zeruiah come to our mind, --these last,
not as enemies, but as hot blooded soldiers who were often too strong for David.
What a change for the man of God from the quietude of the sheepfold to the
turmoil of court and the tumult of combat! How he must have longed to lay aside
his sceptre, and to resume his crook. He felt the time of his dwelling with
quarrelsome spirits to be long, too long; and he only endured it because, as the
Prayer book version has it, he was constrained so to abide.
Verse 7.I am for peace. Properly, "I am peace"; desirous of
peace, peaceful, forbearing, --in fact, peace itself. But when I speak, they are for war. My kindest words appear
to provoke them, and they are at daggers drawn at once. Nothing pleases them; if
I am silent they count me morose, and if I open my mouth they cavil and
controvert. Let those who dwell with such pugilistic company console themselves
with the remembrance that both David and David's Lord endured the same trial. It
is the lot of the saints to find foes even in their own households. Others
besides David dwelt in the place of dragons. Others besides Daniel have been
cast into a den of lions. Meanwhile, let those who are in quiet resting places
and peaceful habitations be greatly grateful for such ease. "Deus nobis haec
otia fecit": God has given us this tranquillity. Be it ours never to inflict
upon others that from which we have been screened ourselves.
Title. "A Song of Degrees". A most excellent song,
Tremellius rendereth it; and so indeed this and the fourteen following are, both
for the matter, and for the form or manner of expression, which is wondrous
short and sweet, as the very epigrams of the Holy Ghost himself, wherein each
verse may well stand for an oracle. And in this sense, "adam hammahalah", or, a
man of degrees, is put for an eminent or excellent man: 1Ch 17:17. Others
understand it otherwise; wherein they have good leave to abound in their own
sense; an error here is not dangerous. --John Trapp.
Whole Psalm. In the interpretation of these psalms, which
sees in them the "degrees" of Christian virtues, this psalm aptly describes the
first of such steps--the renunciation of the evil and vanity of the world. It
thus divides itself into two parts.
1. The Psalmist, in the person of one beginning the grades of
virtue, finds many opponents in the shape of slanderers and ill advisers.
2. He laments the admixture of evil--"Woe is me". --H.T.
Whole Psalm. It is a painful but useful lesson which is
taught by this first of the Pilgrim Psalms, that all who manifest a resolution
to obey the commands and seek the favour of God, may expect to encounter
opposition and reproach in such a course... This these worshippers of old found
when preparing to seek the Lord in his Temple. They were watched in their
preparation by malignant eyes; they were followed to the house of prayer by the
contempt and insinuations of bitter tongues. But their refuge is in him they
worship; and, firmly convinced that he never can forsake his servants, they look
up through the cloud of obloquy to his throne, and implore the succour which
they know that his children shall ever find there. "O Lord, in this my trouble
deliver my soul". --Robert Nisbet.
Whole Psalm. The pilgrims were leaving home; and lying
lips commonly attack the absent. They were about to join the pilgrim caravan;
and in the excitements of social intercourse their own lips might easily deviate
from truth. The psalm, moreover, breathes an intense longing for peace; and in
this world of strife and confusion, when is that longing inappropriate? Is it
any marvel that a Hebrew, with a deep spiritual longing for peace, should cry as
he started for the Temple, "Let me get out of all that, at least for a time. Let
me be quit of this fever and strain, free from the vain turbulence and
conflicting noises of the world. Let me rest and recreate myself a while in the
sacred asylum and sanctuary of the God of peace. God of peace, grant me thy
peace as I worship in thy presence; and let me find a bettered world when I come
back to it, or at least bring a bettered and more patient heart to its duties
and strifes". --Samuel Cox.
Verse 1.In my distress I cried unto the Lord, etc. See the
wondrous advantage of trouble, --that it makes us call upon God; and again see
the wondrous readiness of mercy, that when we call he heareth us! Very blessed
are they that mourn while they are travelling the long upward journey from the
Galilee of the Gentiles of this lower world to the heavenly Jerusalem, the high
and holy city of the saints of God. --J.W. Burgon, in "A Plain
Verse 1.In my distress. God's help is seasonable; it comes
when we need it. Christ is a seasonable good... For the soul to be dark, and for
Christ to enlighten it; for the soul to be dead, and Christ to enliven it; for
the soul to be doubting, and for Christ to resolve it; and for the soul to be
distressed, and for Christ to relieve it; is not this in season? For a soul to
be hard, and for Christ to soften it; for a soul to be haughty, and for Christ
to humble it; for a soul to be tempted, and for Christ to succour it; and for a
soul to be wounded, and for Christ to heal it? Is not this in season? --R.
Verse 1.Cried. Heard. The verbs are in the past tense, but
do not refer merely to a past occasion. Past experience and present are here
combined. From the past he draws encouragement for the present. --J.J. Stewart
Verse 1.And he heard me. The effectual fervent prayer of a
righteous man availeth much: Jas 5:16; Zec 13:9. He that prayeth ardently,
speeds assuredly (Ps 91:15); and the delayed return of prayer should be
carefully observed and thankfully improved: Ps 66:20. --John Trapp.
Verse 2.Deliver my soul, O Lord, from lying lips, etc. An
unbridled tongue is "vehiculum Diaboli", the chariot of the Devil, wherein he
rides in triumph. Greenhorn doth describe the tongue prettily by contraries, or
diversities: "It is a little piece of flesh, small in quantity, but mighty in
quality; it is soft, but slippery; it goeth lightly, but falleth heavily; it
striketh soft, but woundeth sore; it goeth out quickly, but burneth vehemently;
it pierceth deep, and therefore not healed speedily; it hath liberty granted
easily to go forth but it will find no means easily to return home; and being
once inflamed with Satan's bellows, it is like the fire of hell." The course of
an unruly tongue is to proceed from evil to worse, to begin with foolishness,
and go on with bitterness, and to end in mischief and madness. See Ec 10:13. The
Jew's conference with our Saviour began with arguments: "We be Abraham's seed,
"said they, etc.; but proceeded to blasphemies: "Say we not well that thou art a
Samaritan, and hast a devil?" and ended in cruelty: "Then took they up stones to
cast at him." Joh 8:33,48,59. This also is the base disposition of a bad tongue
to hate those whom it afflicts: Pr 26:28. The mischief of the tongue may further appear by the mercy of
being delivered from it, for,
1. So God hath promised it (Joh 5:15,21). "God saveth the poor
from the sword, from their mouth, and from the hand of the mighty, "and "thou
shalt be hid from the scourge of the tongue, "or from being betongued, as some
render it, that is, from being, as it were, caned or cudgelled with the tongues
of others. "Thou shalt hide them in the secret of thy presence from the pride of
man: thou shalt keep them secretly in a pavilion from the strife of tongues" (Ps
31:20); that is, from all calumnies, reproaches, evil speakings of all kinds.
God will preserve the good names of his people from the blots and bespatterings
of malicious men, as kings protect their favourites against slanders and
2. So the saints have prayed for it, as David: "Deliver my
soul, O Lord, from lying lips, and from a deceitful tongue." --Edward
Verse 2.Deliver my soul, O Lord, from lying lips, etc. In
the drop of venom which distils from the sting of the smallest insect, or the
spike of the nettle leaf, there is concentrated the quintessence of a poison so
subtle that the microscope cannot distinguish it, and yet so virulent that it
can inflame the blood, irritate the whole constitution, and convert day and
night into restless misery; so it is sometimes with the words of the slanderer.
--Frederick William Robertson.
Verse 2.Lying lips bore false witness against him, or with
a "deceitful tongue" tried to ensnare him, and to draw something from him, on
which they might ground an accusation. --George Horne.
Verse 3.What shall be given unto thee? or what shall be done
untothee, thou false tongue? What dost thou expect, "thou false
tongue, "in pleading a bad cause? What fee or reward hast thou for being an
accuser instead of an advocate? What shall it profit thee (as we put it in the
margin); what shalt thou gain by thy deceitful tongue? or (as our margin hath it
again), "What shall the deceitful tongue give unto thee, "that thou goest about
slandering thy brother, and tearing his good name? Hath thy deceitful tongue
houses or lands to give thee? hath it any treasures of gold and silver to bestow
upon thee? Surely, as itself is so it gives only "Sharp arrows of the mighty,
with coals of juniper" as the next verse intimates... The tongue indeed will
speak often in these cases gratis, or without a fee; but it never doth without
danger and damage to the speaker. As such speakers shoot arrows, like the arrows
of the mighty, and as they scatter coals, like the coals of juniper, so they
usually get an arrow in their own sides, and not only burn their fingers, but
heap coals of fire upon their own heads. Ungodly men will do mischief to other
men purely for mischief's sake: yet when once mischief is done it proves most
mischievous to the doers of it; and while they hold their brethren's heaviness a
profit, though they are never the better, they shall feel and find themselves in
a short time much the worse. --Joseph Caryl.
Verses 3, 4. What shall be given? Intimating that his enemy
expected some great reward for his malice against David; but, saith the
Psalmist, he shall have "sharp arrows of the Almighty, with coals of juniper";
as if he had said, "Whatever reward he have from men, this shall be his reward
from God". --John Jackson, in "The Morning Exercises," 1661.
Verses 3, 4. The victim of slander, in these heavy complaints
he has just uttered, may be indulging in excess, which pious friends are
represented as coming forward to reprove by reminding him how little a true
servant of God can be really injured by slander. Hence, as in the margin of our
Bibles, the psalm assumes the dramatic form, and represents his fellow
worshippers as asking the complainer: What evil, O servant of God, can the false
tongue give to thee! Nursling of Omnipotence, what can it do to thee... The
answer of suffering nature and bleeding peace still returns: "It is like the
sharp arrows of the mighty, like coals of juniper". An arrow from the bow of a
mighty warrior, that flies unseen and unsuspected to its mark, and whose
presence is only known when it quivers in the victim's heart, not unaptly
represents the silent and deadly flight of slander; while the fire which the
desert pilgrim kindles on the sand, from the dry roots of the juniper, a wood
which, of all that are known to him, throws out the fiercest and most continued
heat, is not less powerfully descriptive of the intense pain and the lasting
injury of a false and malicious tongue. --Robert Nisbet.
Verses 3, 4. Coals of juniper, these "shall be given unto
thee". As if he had said, thou shalt have the hottest coals, such coals as will
maintain heat longest, implying that the hottest and most lasting wrath of God
should be their portion. Some naturalists say that coals of juniper raked up in
the ashes will keep fire a whole year; but I stay not upon this. --Joseph
Verse 4.Sharp arrows of the mighty, with coals of juniper.
The world's sin is the world's punishment. A correspondence is frequently
observed between the transgression and the retribution... This law of
correspondence seem to be here indicated. Similar figures are employed to
express the offence and the punishment of the wicked. "They bend their tongue
like a bow for lies." "Who whet their tongue like a sword, and bend their bows
to shoot in secret at the perfect." But let the slanderer be upon his guard.
There is another bow besides that in his possession. The arrows are sharp and
burning; and when they are sent from the bow by the arm of Omnipotence, nothing
can resist their force, and in mortal agony his enemies bite the dust. "He hath
bent his bow, and made it ready. He hath also prepared for him the instruments
of death: He ordaineth his arrows against the persecutors." "God shall shoot at
them with an arrow; suddenly shall they be wounded; so shall they make their own
tongue fall upon themselves." This train of thought is also pursued in the
illustration of fire. James compares the tongue of slander to fire. "And the
tongue is a fire, a world of iniquity: so is the tongue among the members, that
it defileth the whole body, and setteth on fire the course of nature; and it is
set on fire of hell." Such is the tongue, and here is the punishment: "Coals of
juniper, "remarkable for their long retention of heat. And yet what a feeble
illustration of the wrath of God, which burns down to the lowest hell! "His lips
are full of indignation, and his tongue as a devouring fire." Liars are excluded
from heaven by a special enactment of the Sovereign; and all of them "shall have
their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone, which is the
second death." "Who among us shall dwell with the devouring fire? Who among us
shall dwell with everlasting burnings?" With what solemn awe should we not cry
out to the Lord, "Gather not my soul with sinners, nor my life with bloody
mens!" --N. McMichael, in "The Pilgrim Psalms," 1860.
Verse 4.Sharp arrows of the mighty. He compares wicked
doctrine to an arrow which is not blunt, but sharp; and moreover which is cast,
not of him that is weak and feeble, but that is strong and mighty; so that there
is danger on both sides, as well of the arrow which is sharp and able to pierce,
as also of him which with great violence hurleth the same. --Martin
Verse 4.Arrows. Coals of juniper. When the tongue is
compared to "arrows", there is a reference (according to the Midrash), to the
irrevocableness of the tongue's work. Even the lifted sword may be stayed, but
the shot arrow may not. The special point to be drawn out in the mention of
"coals of juniper", is the inextinguishableness of such fuel. There is a
marvellous story in the Midrash which illustrates this very well. Two men in the
desert sat down under a juniper tree, and gathered sticks of it where with they
cooked their food. After a year they passed over the same spot where was the
dust of what they had burned; and, remarking that it was now twelve months since
they had the fire, they walked fearlessly upon the dust, and their feet were
burned by the "coals" beneath it, which were still unextinguished. --H.T.
Verse 4.Coals of juniper. The fire of the Retham burns for
a very long time covered with its ashes; like malignant slander. But the secret
malignity becomes its own terrible punishment. --William Kay.
Verse 4.Coals of juniper. We here at Wadf Kinnah
found several Bedouins occupied in collecting brushwood, which they burn into
charcoal for the Cairo market; they prefer for this purpose the thick roots of
the shrub Retham, "Genista raetam" of Forskal, which grows here in abundance.
--Johann Ludwig Burckhardt, 1784-1817.
Verse 4.Coals of juniper. At this time we spoke four
"ships of the desert", bound for Cairo, and loaded with "coals of juniper", or,
in other words, with charcoal made from the roots or branches of the ratam, or
white broom of the desert, the identical bush referred to by the sacred writer.
--John Wilson, in "The Lands of the Bible visited and described," 1847.
Verse 4. By "coals of juniper, "we understand arrows made
of this wood, which when heated possesses the property of retaining the heat for
a long time; and consequently, arrows of this kind, after having been placed in
the fire, would in the hands of the warrior do terrible execution. Some persons
think that this verse is not to be understood as a figurative description of
calumny, but rather of the punishment which God will inflict upon the
calumniator. They therefore regard this as an answer to the question in the
preceding verse: "What shall he give?" etc. --George Phillips.
Verse 5.Woe is me, that I sojourn in Mesech, that I dwell in
thetents of Kedar! Mesech was a son of Japheth; and the name here
signifies his descendants, the Mosques, who occupied that wild mountain region
which lies between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea. Kedar, again, was a son of
Ishmael; and the name here signifies his descendants, the wandering tribes,
whose "hand is against every man, and every man's hand against them." There is
no geographical connection between those two nations: the former being upon the
north of Palestine, and the latter upon the south. The connection is a moral
one. They are mentioned together, because they were fierce and warlike
barbarians. David had never lived on the shores of the Caspian Sea, or in the
Arabian wilderness; and he means no more than this, that the persons with whom
he now dwelt were as savage and quarrelsome as Mesech and Kedar. After a similar
fashion, we call rude and troublesome persons Turks, Tartars, and Hottentots.
David exclaims, I am just as miserable among these haters of peace, as if I had
taken up my abode with those savage and treacherous tribes. --N.
Verse 5.Woe is me, that I sojourn in Mesech, etc. David
exclaims, Alas for me because, dwelling amongst false brethren and a bastard
race of Abraham, he was wrongfully molested and tormented by them, although he
had behaved himself towards them in good conscience. Since then, at the present
day, in the church of Rome, religion is dishonoured by all manner of disgraceful
imputations, faith torn in pieces, light turned into darkness, and the majesty
of God exposed to the grossest mockeries, it will certainly be impossible for
those who have any feeling of true piety within them to lie in the midst of such
pollutions without great anguish of spirit. --John Calvin.
Verse 6. The Arabs are naturally thievish and treacherous;
and it sometimes happens, that those very persons are overtaken and pillaged in
the morning who were entertained the night before with all the instances of
friendship and hospitality. Neither are they to be accused for plundering
strangers only, and attacking almost every person whom they find unarmed and
defenceless, but for those many implacable and hereditary animosities which
continually subsist among them; literally fulfilling the prophecy of Hagar, that
"Ishmael should be a wild man; his hand should be against every man, and every
man's hand against him". --Thomas Shaw, 1692-1751.
Verse 6. Our Lord was with the wild beasts in the
wilderness. There are not a few who would rather face even these than the angry
spirits which, alas, are still to be found even in Christian Churches.
--Wesleyan Methodist Magazine, 1879.
Verses 6, 7. What holy and gentle delight is associated with
the very name of peace. Peace resting upon our bosom, and soothing all its
cares: peace resting upon our households, and folding all the members in one
loving embrace: peace resting upon our country, and pouring abundance from her
golden horn peace resting upon all nations, and binding them together with the
threefold cord of a common humanity, a common interest, and a common religion!
The man who hates peace is a dishonour to the race, an enemy to his brother, and
a traitor to his God. He hates Christ, who is the Prince of peace. He hates
Christians, who are men of peace. --N. McMichael.
Verse 7.I am for peace, etc. Jesus was a man of peace; he
came into our world, and was worshipped at his nativity as the Prince of peace:
there was universal peace throughout the world at the time of his birth; he
lived to make peace "by the blood of his cross": he died to complete it. When he
was going out of the world, he said to his disciples, "Peace I leave with you,
my peace I give unto you: not as the world giveth, give I unto you. Let not your
heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid": Joh 14:27. When he was risen from
the dead, and made his first appearance to his disciples, he said unto them.
"Peace be unto you": he is the peace maker: the Holy Ghost is the peace bringer:
his gospel is the gospel of peace; it contains the peace of God which passeth
all understanding. "I am for peace: but when I speak, they are for war". The
bulk of the Jewish nation abhorred Christ, they were for putting him to death;
to avenge which, the Lord brought the Roman army against them, and many of them
were utterly destroyed. So David literally was for peace with Saul; yet, when
opportunities made way for any negotiations, it was soon discovered Saul was for
war, instead of peace, with him. May we see how this, which is the introductory psalm to those
fourteen which follow, styled Songs of Degrees, hath a concern with our Lord
Jesus Christ; and that David the son of Jesse was in many cases a type of him,
and several of his enemies, sorrows, and griefs, forerunning figures of what
would befall Messiah, and come upon him. Amen. --Samuel Eyles Pierce.
Verse 7.I am for peace. Good men love peace, pray for it,
seek it, pursue it, will give anything but a good conscience for it. Compare Mt
5:9; Heb 7:14: W.S. Plumer. "It is a mark of a pious man, as far as in
him is, to seek peace": Arnesius. "I would not give one hour of brotherly
love for a whole eternity of contention": Dr. Ruffner.
Verse 7.When l speak, they are for war. He spoke with all
respect and kindness that could be; proposed methods of accommodation; spoke
reason, spoke love; but they would not so much as hear him patiently; but cried
out, To arms! To arms! so fierce and implacable were they, and so bent on
mischief. Such were Christ's enemies: for his love they were his adversaries;
and for his good words and good works they stoned him; and if we meet with such
enemies we must not think it strange, nor love peace the less for our seeking it
in vain. "Be not overcome of evil", no, not of such evil as this; "but", even
when thus tried, still try to "overcome evil with good". --Matthew Henry.
1. It is threefold; distress, prayer, deliverance.
2. It has a threefold bearing: it excites my hope, stimulates
my petitions, and arouses my gratitude.
1. Special trouble: "In my distress."
2. Special prayer: "I cried unto the Lord."
3. Special favour: "He heard me." --G.R.
Verse 2. The unjustly slandered have, besides the avenging
majesty of their God to protect them, many other consolations, as
1. The consciousness of innocence to sustain them.
2. The promise of divine favour to support them: "I will hide
thee from the scourge of the tongue."
3. There is the consideration to soothe: "Blessed are ye when
men shall revile you and persecute you, "etc.
4. That a lie has not usually a long life.
5. There is, lastly, for comfort, the repairing influence of
time. --R. Nisbet.
Verse 2. A prayer against slander. We are liable to it; it
would do us great injury and cause us great pain; yet none but the Lord can
protect us from it, or deliver us out of it.
Verse 3. The rewards of calumny. What can they be? What
ought they to be? What have they been?
1. What the reviler does for others.
2. What he does to himself.
3. What God will do with him.
Verse 4. The nature of slander and the punishment of
1. The tongue is sharper than an arrow.
(a) It is shot in private.
(b) It is tipped with poison.
(c) It is polished with seeming kindness.
(d) It is aimed at the most tender part.
2. The tongue is more destructive than fire. Its scandals
spread with greater rapidity. They consume that which other fires cannot touch,
and they are less easily quenched. "The tongue", says an Apostle, "is a
fire...and setteth on fire the course of nature; and it is set on fire of hell".
A fiery dart of the wicked one. --G.R.
Verse 5. Bad lodgings. Only the wicked can be at home with
the wicked. Our dwelling with them is trying, and yet it may be useful
(1) to them,
(2) to us: it tries our graces, reveals our character, abates our pride, drives us to prayer, and makes us
long to be home.
1. None but the wicked enjoy the company of the wicked.
2. None but the worldly enjoy the company of worldlings.
3. None but the righteous enjoy the company of the righteous.
1. Trying company.
2. Admirable behaviour.
3. Undesirable consequences: "When I speak, they are for war".
Verse 7. The character of the man of God. He is at peace.
He is for peace. He is peace. He shall have peace.
1. Piety and peace are united.
2. So are wickedness and war. --G.R.